I said, "How is this possible?" The first thing the newly-freed prisoners thought of was food. The first place the Sgt. Liberators and Survivors: The First Moments 15:26. As always, teachers should review the content fully in advance to determine its appropriateness for their student population. Jack Adler. Have each group select a reporter to share the discussion points made regarding each “lens.” Encourage students to listen for differences in perspective depending on the lens in which the photographs were viewed. The purpose of this unit is to provide students with an understanding of the political, legal, social, and emotional status of the Jewish survivors. Rachael moved in with the granddaughter of her grandmother’s foster mother from World War II and traded her labor for room and board as Hana once did. What food does Anton Mason remember the American soldier giving him? After his visit, Eisenhower cabled. Describe the complex emotional ramifications of liberation for Jews at the end of World War II. Access to the podcast, as well as additional supporting materials—including IWitness student activities, academic standards alignment, and general strategies for teaching with podcasts—can all be found at the We Share The Same Sky page in IWitness. Our Lesson Plans provide a unique experience for educators to teach about the Holocaust effectively and interactively. I saw the clothing of little children, the little children that didn't survive. A common tendency among survivors was that many married and soon thereafter had children. Years after liberation, Howard continues to be moved by his experience. From holocaust survivors stories worksheets to holocaust survivors project videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. Multitudes had fled in the face of the fighting, including when possible, those persecuted by the Germans and their partners. What does Anton say was the “greatest thing” the soldiers did for the survivors? What kinds of questions is Harry Herder asking himself following his experience at Buchenwald? He emphasized that he purposely witnessed these horrors so that no one would later be able to deny what he saw with his own eyes. Do you get a sense from the letter that Evers is struggling with what he saw? This video complements the unit called Survivors and Liberators. Describe what you think the speaker’s experience might have been. In order to enhance its classroom use, USC Shoah Foundation and Echoes & Reflections have created a Companion Educational Resource to support teachers as they introduce the podcast to their students. "The Jewish Holocaust Centre was created by Melbourne Holocaust survivors as a memorial to the 6 million Jews who were murdered in WWII." There's some them that couldn't walk, they were just crawling. On May 8, 1945, Nazi Germany’s unconditional surrender became official, and Europe was liberated from Nazi rule. Keep in mind, the sensitive and emotional nature of the topics may preclude teacher evaluation. He hit the ground and started to pray. a minimum of 3 full sentences. Share this video. Task One: View the following clips of survivor testimony and answer at least THREE of the discussion questions included in the file to the right: ... Liberators and Survivors - The First Moments… Why do you think people have this reaction? But no, it wasn't propaganda at all. For countless survivors of the Holocaust, that first contact with the liberators was the moment they began to feel safe after years of fear, loss and rupture. What were some of the details, and why do you think he included them, especially in a letter to his family? The retreating German Nazis began to fear their end was near and began to try and destroy any and all evidence of genocide. Many Germans did not care much, one way or the other, and the foreign press condemned the action. Jul 12, 2018 | by Yad Vashem. "The things I saw beggar description. Are we looking for credit? I said, "I don't know if I can go on." Allied armed forces advanced across Europe in the war's final stages relentlessly pursuing the retreating German army. Individuals were in need of physical and emotional rehabilitation. Yad Vashem took great care not to include visually graphic photographs in this video, making it particularly suitable for middle and high school students. drove me to was the awful proof of therumors—boxcars and bodies.The stories we had heard gave noindication of the grotesque forms of the victims and their emaciatedcondition. Perpetrators, Collaborators, and Bystanders, The Children and Legacies beyond the Holocaust. What do you think were the first things the survivors needed in order to “Return to Life”? US Army Staff Sergeant Horace Evers, was among the first allied soldiers to enter Adolf Hitler's abandoned Munich quarters. Related Articles. The following questions can help guide this discussion: Introduce students to [L]Dennis Urstein[/L], [L]Henry Mikols[/L], and [L]David Abrams[/L] and then show their clips of testimony. One of the fellows came out and spoke English, and he said, "Are you American?" What conflicting emotions does Dennis explain he felt after learning he was free? Solly Ganor lay half dead in the snow after a death march from Dachau. Two days after Adolf Hitler committed suicide, Evers and his unit found themselves in Hitler’s private residence. His liberator Clarence Matsumura was a member of a segregated regiment of Nisei soldiers. The boycott in Germany was not a great success. What is their relationship to one another? Why or why not? Trained to wage war, many chose to suspend their military missions for the humanitarian mission of giving care and respect to the survivors. • policymaker As with other primary documents, letters reflect only the viewpoint of a single individual and may contain mistakes. The period following liberation is often referred to as “Return to Life” or “Returning to Life.”. Yuval Ovadia. 3477 Jerusalem 9103401 Israel . What is the effect of hearing both survivors and liberators talk about liberation? We would like to build a Liberators’ section in the Cybrary, and Chuck’s story is the beginning. Worksheet on Nuremberg War Crimes Trial Procedure: In small groups, have students read testimonies of survivors. We saw women on the floor on wooden pallets. The Soviet army advancing from the east liberated Nazi camps in Poland including Majdanek and Auschwitz. In order for humanity to survive and live in peace, we must allow us to be guided by the Golden Rule. Along with the occupation authorities, these organizations also sought to aid them on a daily basis and to ensure their physical well-being. DISPLACED PERSONS' CAMP: LANDSBERG, GERMANY, DISPLACED PERSONS' CAMP: SALZBURG, AUSTRIA, Assign each group one of the “lenses” below and instruct them to study the photographs again from this particular lens (e.g., If you were a ______ in this camp, what would you notice? Leon Bass was 20 years old and was among the first US soldiers to arrive at Buckenberg. Then out of no place, on April 11th, the Americans arrived. Compare and Contrast different experiences. This was their first encounter with the horror of what would come to be known as the Holocaust. © 2021 Coursera Inc. All rights reserved. The remnants of European Jewry—hundreds of thousands of broken men and women who had been uprooted from their homes and their former lives—began the long and difficult process of rehabilitating themselves and rebuilding their lives. This crime came to be known as genocide. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2017, After many years of research and digitizing the archive her grandmother left behind, Rachael set out to retrace her grandmother’s 17 years of statelessness. Solly has called Clarence his Angel. This Educator Video Toolbox is aligned to Echoes & Reflections, a comprehensive Holocaust education program that delivers professional development and a rich array of multimedia resources for middle and high school teachers. Liberators and Survivors: The First Moments . What does UNHCR do to assist refugees and internally displaced persons? We need your testimonies! Nice say Soldiers celebrated the survivors freedom, even though racial tension and fear during the war had caused many of their own families to be interned in camps in the US. These queries are excellent for journaling, allowing students to create their own primary source material. If anything some of the truth had been held back, in two years of combat you can imagine I've seen a lot of death. As a whole class, read Simon Wiesenthal’s. Begin this lesson with a discussion about how students imagine survivors felt after liberation. In his testimony, Anton says, “We were happy, we were sad, we were happy that we were free, that we were alive and the Germans had lost. I've been trying to give testimony for a long time by just going around and speaking to people. How does Anton explain so many survivors dying after being fed by the soldiers? They picked up and carried the men into the camps. How does Dennis Urstein describe conditions in Dachau prior to liberation? In what countries is the UNHCR currently operating and why? Many made the conscious decision to put their military objectives temporarily on hold, in order to care for the broken and dying prisoners that they found. What do you think the walk symbolized for him? What does Henry Mikols remember of the liberation of Bergen-Belsen? It is not something that comes from outside. As they did, they stumbled onto camps often accidentally that had been established and run by the Nazis and their local collaborators. One such letter was written by staff sergeant Horace Evers. How might you propose to solve problems that displaced persons might be facing?). If so, how? From many liberators their first contact with the survivors was a powerful moment of insight. They had skeletal faces with deep set eyes. Are personal letters evidence of what happened or should they be studied within the context of other sources? This document provides essential questions for students, as well as additional resources and content to help build context and framing for students’ understanding of the historical events addressed in the podcast. Liberators and Survivors: The First Moments This Educator Video Toolbox is aligned to Echoes & Reflections, a comprehensive Holocaust education program that delivers professional development and a … Your responses should be . Do you think the phrase accurately captures the Jewish experience at this time? What other emotions do you think survivors probably experienced after liberation? Essentially the Soviet forces liberated camp inmates and after some initial aid, left them on their own. But there's something that's just impossible to explain. What choices would Harry have had if in fact he had been a German citizen and in the German army during World War II? Dred Scott v. Sanford was a watershed moment for the country—and a key moment leading up to the Civil War. What kind of information do you learn from each? Online Store. Furious deaths mostly, but nothing has ever stirred me as much as this. Introduce students to [L]Howard Cwick[/L], [L]Anton Mason[/L], and [L]Paul Parks[/L]; show their clips of testimony; and discuss some or all of the questions below. Eisenhower's eyewitness testimony reveals that what he saw at Ohrdruf left a powerful impression. The experiences of the survivors on the liberators moved many to become a moral voice sharing their stories. Liberation of Woebbelin Concentration Camp by a U.S. unit. What is the theme of the poem? (Unit 9 State of Florida Resource Guide) Provide time for sharing and discussion. These people came out of these barracks like buildings, their striped uniforms on. Allow time for students to consider the range of emotions that Jews felt after liberation. On what continents has UNHCR worked over the years? What do you imagine some of their fears were? For the first time in its history, the commemoration is digital rather than face-to-face. So he gave me a little food. Try the Course for Free. Analyze the choices made by survivors as they reentered society and began to rebuild their lives. Their value, however, is that they offer readers a glimpse into the wide range of emotions that people felt as historical events were unfolding. It is extremely important for Liberators and any other witnesses to the atrocities of the Holocaust to document their testimonies. While liberation of the Jews was not the primary objective of the Allies, troops did free prisoners, provided food and medical care when possible, and collected evidence for war crimes trials. Ask them to consider the following questions: Assign half the class the poem “Holocaust 1944” and the other half “When It Happened.” Have students break into pairs, making sure that both partners have been assigned the same poem. What does Malka say brought her “back to life”? Paul Parks tells about speaking to a young girl in Dachau who many years later sees and remembers him “by his eyes.” Do you find it surprising that this woman remembered her liberator after so many years? Chuck Ferree was the first to share his story on the Cybrary. In her testimony, Ester says, “I started under the penalty of death—that was my beginning, and then I finished with the penalty of death and I got five years of retirement.” What do you think Ester means by this statement? Liberators and Survivors: The First Moments . That food was worth it could have gotten anything for it in Gutenberg, but he gave it to me. World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. A frequently cited dictum on Holocaust representation is German philosopher and sociologist Theodor Adorno’s statement: “…to write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric…” How do you interpret this statement? Liberators and survivors return together to the notorious Nazi concentration camp seven decades later. Up against the wall, there were mounts of clothing. Would survivors, in your opinion, have been justified had they become criminals and thieves? Have some or all of the following questions posted on the board or on chart paper to help students organize their discussions: After the class discusses the poems in pairs, come back together as a whole group. Photo by Rachael Cerrotti, 2015, A self portrait of Rachael overlooking the exact spot in Southern Sweden where her grandmother’s refugee boat came to shore in 1943. There we were met by Schindler survivors Genya and Nachum Manor, who related their firsthand experiences and memories of Oskar Schindler. How does Anton say he answered Elie Wiesel when Elie said, “We are free”? The testimonies of the first soldiers who entered the camps known as the liberators, are important eyewitness accounts of the mass atrocities committed against the Jews of Europe by the Nazis and their collaborators. The personal condition of most Holocaust survivors was appalling after all they had endured. Ironically, African American GIs like Paul Parks and Leon Bass, and Japanese Americans like Clarence Matsumura, served in segregated units in the US Army. What emotions is the speaker experiencing? Each lesson includes: PEDAGOGY PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION, PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE HOLOCAUST INSTRUCTION. War survivor Irene Perez Ploke Sgambelluri was the guest speaker at the ceremony and shared her story about the Japanese occupation of Guam, and her long fight to get war reparations. What are the possible reasons for this attitude? The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provides protection, shelter, emergency food, water, medical care, and other life-saving assistance to millions of people worldwide, who have been forced to flee their homes due to war and persecution. Before telling the story of their dehumanization in the camp, some survivors needed liberators to first see them as they had been before the war: as … Note: Due to the subject nature, the podcast is appropriate for older students, grades 10-12. Transcript. The piece of writing should introduce the situation/question, summarize opposing responses, and then state and support their own position with logical reasoning that demonstrates an understanding of the topic. The integration of rich content in each Lesson helps students construct an authentic and comprehensive portrait of the past as they frame their own thoughts about what they are learning, resulting in a deeper level of interest and inquiry. and respond to the following questions. Describe some of the conditions liberators found upon entering the camps. We went out to greet the American soldiers, and we drop to their feet, we kissed their boots. he said, "Thank God." Bodies on top of each other no telling how many, and then into the camp itself. An international team of astronomers using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and retired Spitzer Space Telescope has reported what may be the first intact planet found closely orbiting a white dwarf, the dense leftover of a Sun-like star, only 40% larger than Earth. Students should then be encouraged to use the Biographical Profile and/or IWitness testimony (, Explain to students that a critical issue that arose after liberation was that of the displacement of survivors. Lesson 8 SURVIVORS AND LIBERATORS Making Connections The additional activities and projects listed below can be integrated directly into the lesson or can be used to extend the lesson once it has been completed. I think it's important that I speak about what I saw and let others speak about what they saw. How does what Anton says fit into what you already know about the “Final Solution”? They began to understand that the Nazis had committed atrocities against civilians, the vast majority of them Jews on an unimaginable scale and that these atrocities were very different from the deaths caused by conventional warfare. But … Bibliography and Videography, USHMM. What challenges does the UNHCR face as it works? Standing at Schindler’s grave with these two survivors while they related their stories was a profound experience. • sociologist Why or why not? What is the value of reading and studying Holocaust poetry? Allow time for students to read and discuss their assigned poem with their partners. What kinds of things do you think they thought about in light of what they had witnessed? Hardened combat veterans, the American GIs were used to death, many had been fighting for years, but they had never seen killings of civilians on the massive scale they discovered. For many, liberation came too late, hundreds continue to die every day of starvation, exhaustion, and disease, but for others the soldiers were larger than life. What questions does reading this testimony raise for you? Paul Parks was a 22 year-old American soldier from Indianapolis, who witnessed Dachau after liberation. We opened this shed, we went in there. Rozell has done intensive work and managed to bring the survivors and the liberators to meet after more than fifty years–just before it would have been too late.” “Incredible research went into this book.Thoroughly enjoyed reading this and so sad to know we are soon to lose this entire generation. Anton Mason was about 18 when he was liberated by American soldiers at Gutenberg. Sign up now to learn about future programs and Holocaust education resources for the classroom.