It is variably defined as a heart rate above 160-180 beats per minute (bpm) and typically ranges between 170-220 bpm (higher rates can occur with tachyarrhythmias). Within 14 minutes, the fetal heart rate increased from a baseline of 155 beats per minute (bpm) to more than 200 bpm while maintaining moderate variability. Cardiol Young. 158-164. A fetal tachycardia can be associated with many maternal, as well as fetal conditions, which include: maternal. bei Säuglingen oder Kindern andere Höchstwerte gelten. Der Grenzwert von 100/min sollte flexibel beurteilt werden, da z.B. Diagnosis is made when there is a regular rapid atrial rate of approximately 400bpm with variable AV conduction. Gehe zu Seite: Ergebnis 41 bis 43 von 43 Thema: Nasenbein nicht darstellbar,fetale Tachykardie. Simpson LL, Fetal Supraventricular Tachycardias: Diagnosis and Management , Semin Perinatol (2000);24(5): pp. 1297-1302. A fetal tachycardia can be associated with many maternal, as well as fetal conditions, which include: An M-mode Doppler study is best for assessment of heart rate. The estimated prevalence is ~0.4-1% of pregnancies 3,7. Schwangerschaftsalter zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt 77 5.7.2. 104-113. 584-587. Die Tachykardie ist eine Überschreitung der altersüblichen physiologischen Herzfrequenz (HF) z.B. There is concern for dose-dependent contraction of placental vessels with a potential reduction in blood flow.4. 2. 2009;19 (5): 486-93. Larmay HJ, Strasburger JF, Differential Diagnosis and Management of the Fetus and Newborn with an Irregular or Abnormal Heart Rate, Pediatr Clin North Am (2004);51(4): pp. 1033-1050, x. Jaeggi ET, Nii M, Fetal Brady- and Tachyarrhythmias: New and Accepted Diagnostic and Treatment Methods , Semin Fetal Neonatal Med (2005);10(6): pp. Frohn-Mulder IM, Stewart PA,Witsenburg M, et al., The Efficacy of Flecanide Versus Digoxin In the Management of Fetal Supraventricular Tachycardia , Prenat Diagn (1995);15(13): pp. There are reports of fetal demise in patients treated with flecanide, but it is unclear whether the cause of death was proarrhythmia or the severity of the heart failure.14 Flecanide should be avoided in fetal atrial flutter and mothers with structural or ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, or bradycardia.8 Major side-effects are maternal proarrhythmia and QRS prolongation.8,20 Procainamide (pregnancy category C) also acts at the level of the accessory pathway; specifically, blocking sodium, and potassium channels. 576-581. 2006;91 (2): F136-44. Schauen Sie sich jetzt die ganze Liste der weiteren möglichen Ursachen und Krankheiten an! Eine Tachykardie (altgriechisch ταχυκαρδία tachykardía, deutsch Schnellherzigkeit, umgangssprachlich Herzrasen) ist ein anhaltend beschleunigter Puls auf über 100 Schläge pro Minute beim erwachsenen Menschen; ab einem Puls von 150 Schlägen/min spricht man von einer ausgeprägten Tachykardie. Eine Tachykardie kann viele Gesichter haben Fetal tachyarrhythmias occur in approximately 0.4-0.6% of all fetuses.1-3 Normal fetal heart rates range from 120-160 beats per minute (bpm), with rates greater than 180bpm indicative of tachycardia.4-7 Usually, fetal arrhythmias are isolated findings; however, 5% of fetuses will also have congenital heart disease,8,9 such as Ebstein's anomaly, atrioventricular canal, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or intracardiac tumors. Athanassiadis AP, Dadamogias C, Netskos D, et al., Fetal Tachycardia: Is Digitalis Still the First-Line Therapy? 2004;4 (3): 104-13. Fetal tachyarrhythmia--part I: Diagnosis. Diagnosis of fetal tachycardia depends on accurate ultrasound assessment of fetal heart rate and atrium to ventricle relationships.Therapy is chosen based on the presence or absence of hydrops as well as the presumed mechanism of tachycardia. Pradhan M, Manisha M, Singh R, et al., Amiodarone in Treatment of Fetal Supraventricular Tachycardia: A Case Report and Review of Literature , Fetal Diagn Ther (2006);21(1): pp. fetal tachycardia: a fetal heart rate that continues at 160 beats/min or more for more than 10 minutes. The prognosis for hydrops associated with fetal arrhythmia is poor with mortality as high as 50-98%,4,13 compared with 0-4% in cases without evidence of significant failure.6, The primary goal of fetal therapy is the prevention or resolution of hydrops.14,15 This may be achieved by: conversion to sinus rhythm; or ventricular rate control.8,12,16 The use of fetal echocardiography, M-mode and pulse-wave Doppler has lead to improved diagnosis of fetal arrhythmias, and remains the cornerstone of diagnosis.1,6 Fetal magnetocardiography, a non-invasive method for diagnosing complex fetal arrhythmias, is available at limited centers.1,8, Initial medical therapy is delivered transplacentally by administering medication to the mother orally or intravenously. Outcome 77 5.7.1. Sie umfassen auf der mütterlichen Seite vor allem Fieber, Erregungszustände und Angst, die mit hoher Katecholaminausschüttung einhergehen. The mechanism of action is to increase AV node refractoriness.20 As a negative inotrope, ventricular function may be effected.4 Side effects include hypoglycemia and low birth weight.7,20 Amiodarone (pregnancy category D), a class III anti-arrhythmic blocking sodium, potassium, and calcium channels,8 has been used successfully for treating fetal tachycardia with associated hydrops.8,14,16 It has been used alone and in combination with digoxin and/or sotalol.22, The most common side-effect, fetal hypothyroidism, is generally transient and treatable with no long-term complications.7,22 Other reported side-effects include thrombocytopenia and rash.8 Often, amiodarone is administered transplacentally, but has been used in direct fetal therapy.There have been no reported deaths with amiodarone monotherapy;7,20 however there are reports of intrauterine demise with amiodarone and flecanide.22 Flecanide (pregnancy category C) acts on accessory pathways, blocking conduction through sodium channels.4,8 It is effective in the hydropic population.10 Some institutions utilize flecanide as first-line therapy, with/without digoxin, for this group.13,17,19 The excellent fetal bioavailability,14 even in the presence of hydrops, makes flecanide attractive for transplacental therapy. Management der fetalen Supraventrikuläre Tachykardie 75 5.6. Re: Nasenbein nicht darstellbar,fetale Tachykardie Liebe Nela, als ich deinen Beitrag gelesen habe, da erinnerte es mich irgendwie an vor 2 Jahren als ich in einer so ähnlichen Situation war, deswegen hoffe ich dass ich dir ein wenig Mut machen kann. Nasenbein nicht darstellbar,fetale Tachykardie; Seite 5 von 5 Erste... 3 4 5. Brown DL. Starke Brustschmerzen, Angstgefühle und Atemnot kommen hinzu. Oudijk MA, Visser GH, Meijboom EJ, Fetal Tachyarrhythmia - Part 1: Diagnosis , Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J (2004);4(3): pp. Auffällig ist zunächst die hohe Herzfrequenz. In 80% of patients, conduction is 2:111 (see Figure 2), resulting in ventricular rates of 200bpm.4 AFL may progress to 3:1 block, or alternatively may develop intermittent 1:1 conduction.1 The rhythm is irregular and persistent, and is associated with fetal hydrops in 7-43% of cases.1 AFL may be associated with congenital heart disease or chromosomal abnormalities.5, As in the treatment of fetal SVT, digoxin is used as first-line therapy for non-hydropic fetal AFL.11 Studies have shown that sotalol (pregnancy category B; anti-arrhythmic class III) is efficacious in the treatment of fetal AFL,2,6 and less effective for SVT. Copyright® 2021 Radcliffe Medical Media. Strasburger JF, Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Arrhythmias , Clin Perinatol (2005);32(4): pp. Die Tachykardie verschwindet nicht von selbst, und auch Aktionen wie Druck auf die Halsschlagader helfen nicht. Am J Obstet Gynecol. fetale Tachykardie, Herzchen schlägt zu schnell. Singh GK, Management of Fetal Tachyarrhythmias , Cur Treat Options Cardiovasc Med (2004);6(5): 399-406. Sonesson SE, Fouron JC,Wesslen-Eriksson E, et al., Foetal supraventricular tachycardia treated with sotalol , Acta Paediatr (1998);87(5): pp. Leiria TL, Lima GG, Dillenburg RF, et al., Fetal Tachyarrhythmia with 1:1 Atrioventricular Conduction. Krapp M, Kohl T, Simpson JM, et al., Review of Diagnosis,Treatment, and Outcome of Fetal Atrial Flutter Compared with Supraventricular Tachycardia , Heart (2003);89(8): pp. 185-194. It has been used both diagnostically (to unmask atrial flutter3) and therapeutically. Themen-Optionen. {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=us\u0026email="}. Tachykardie möglich macht [84. -. Kothari DS, Skinner JR. Neonatal tachycardias: an update. Februar 2009 um 22:01 Uhr bearbeitet. [medizin.uni-halle.de] Beschreibung anzeigen. 65-68. maternal hyperthyroidism; maternal medications; maternal tachycardia (e.g. The long-term prognosis for most fetuses diagnosed with sinus tachycardia is generally good, with the abnormal rhythm resolving spontaneously during the first year of life in the majority of cases 5. The incidence of fetal tachycardia in groups E and E + Ph was greater than that in group Ph. Um sie zu bestimmen, wird eine gedachte horizontale Linie durch die Aufzeichnung der FHF in der wehenfreien Phase gelegt, sodass die Kurven ungefähr in der Mitte geschnitten werden. Auffällig ist zunächst die hohe Herzfrequenz. 2721-2726. 1-3 Normal fetal heart rates range from 120-160 beats per minute (bpm), with rates greater than 180bpm indicative of tachycardia. Fetal digoxin levels are less than maternal levels; due to variable absorption, large volume of distribution, and rapid clearance of medication.4,7,8 The mother must be treated with high therapeutic doses of digoxin, which may result in maternal side effects, including GI and CNS disturbances, and cardiac arrhythmias (premature beats, AV block).8,14,20 Intramuscular fetal digoxin therapy has also been effective in treating the refractory hydropic fetus.5,7, Propranolol (pregnancy category C), a β-blocker, is used primarily in combination therapy. Bei nur kurfristiger Erhöhung haben wir oft keine Sorgen. Digoxin should not be first-line therapy for fetal tachycardia, particularly in the presence of hydrops fetalis. Vergani P, Mariani E, Ciriello E, et al., Fetal Arrhythmias: Natural History and Management , Ultrasound Med Biol (2005);31(1): pp. systemic infection) fetal. Die Möglichkeit der Erkennung besteht, wenn die Ventrikelfrequenz die des Vorhofs überschreitet und eine atrioventrikuläre Frequenzdissoziation zu erkennen ist. Auftreten postpartaler Herzrhythmusstörungen 78 5.7.3. Cuneo B, Strasburger J, Management strategy for fetal tachycardia , Obstet Gynecol (2000);96(4): pp. Premium Drupal Theme by Adaptivethemes.com. Fetal Neonatal Ed. Kennt das jemand und was kann das für Folgen haben? 1. Simpson JM, Sharland GK, Fetal Tachycardias: Management and Outcome in 127 consecutive cases , Heart (1998);79(6): pp. SSW - 13.08.2012 Fetale Erkrankung & Hypotonie & Tachykardie: Mögliche Ursachen sind unter anderem Vorzeitige Plazentaablösung. Die Folgen einer Tachykardie hängen u.a. Child. ..... Click the link for more information. Adenosine Infusion in the Umbilical Vein as a Diagnostic Test , Arq Bras Cardiol (2000);75(1): pp. While most arrhythmias are intermittent, more persistent arrhythmias may lead to fetal heart failure, or non-immune hydrops fetalis;4,10 progression to hydrops may be seen in up to 40% of cases with sustained tachycardia.11 Hydrops is seen with ventricular rates greater than 230bpm lasting for over 12 hours.2,5,12 Early echocardiographic evidence of hemodynamic compromise includes biatrial enlargement and atrioventricular valvar regurgitation; later findings include cardiomegaly and decreased systolic function. Irregularities of the fetal heart: a phonocardiographic study of the fetal heart sounds from the fifth to eighth months of pregnancy. Wie ist es über der Geburt was hat es für Auswirkungen auf das Kind? Guntheroth WG, Cyr DR, Shields LE, et al., Rate-Based Management of Fetal Supraventricular Tachycardia , J Ultrasound Med (1996);15(6): pp. ... helfen wird, die erhöhte Herzfrequenz zu eliminieren, beeinflusst aber nicht den Verlauf der Schwangerschaft und die fetale Entwicklung. Blutung bei Extrauteringravidität. tachycardia: see arrhythmiaarrhythmia , disturbance in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. Fetal tachyarrhythmias occur in approximately 0.4-0.6% of all fetuses. Einleitung: Die verschiedenen Formen der Fetalen Alkohol-Spektrum-Störungen als Folge eines Alkoholmissbrauchs durch die Mutter während der Schwangerschaft werden dargestellt. Often, there is more ventricular dysfunction than seen with AVRT.7 There is atrioventricular dissociation with a faster ventricular than atrial rate.4 VT is usually paroxysmal and may be seen during labor;1,4 it may be associated with myocarditis, complete heart block, or congenital long QT syndrome.7 Prognosis depends on the underlying mechanism. Eine fetale Tachykardie wäre eine über einen langen Zeitraum anhaltende Herzfrequenz über 160 Schläge in der Minute. systemic infection). Aus dem Vorhof lassen schnelle Impulse das Herz reg… Treatment options (if required) include transplacental administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. . 1997;169 (4): 1029-33. Genauer gesagt, um eine Störung im Erregungsleitungssystem des Herzens. Probleme beim Lernen bzw. This is one of a number of legislative requirements that we must adhere to and as part of the service that you receive from us these requirements are built into our systems and processes. Tachykarde Herzrhythmusstörungen treten auf, wenn die Erregungsleitung im Herzen gestört ist. Fetale Tachykardie. 449-452. Schleich JM, Bernard du Haut Cilly F, Laurent MC, et al., Early Prenatal Management of a Fetal Ventricular Tachycardia Treated in utero by Amiodarone with Long Term Follow-Up , Prenat Diagn (2000);20(6): pp. Fetal bedeutet "den Fetus betreffend" bzw. Ultrasound may also show evidence of associated complications, such as signs of hydrops fetalis. 187-207, vii. 504-514. Fetale Arrhythmien: 80 – 90% der Feten mit suspizierten Arrhythmien haben einen Sinusrhythmus mit supraventrikulären Extrasystolen die teilweise auch blockiert sein können, 10-15% haben eine tachykarde Herzaktion und nur 5% haben fetale Bradykardien. 4. 765-770. Bergmans MG, Jonker GJ, Kock HC. Check for errors and try again. (NICHD) davon ab, wie schnell der Herzschlag tatsächlich ist und wo die Tachykardie entsteht. 360-372. Atemnot, Kurzatmigkeit und ein Engegefühl in der Brust begleiten das Herzrasen. Um diesen Artikel zu kommentieren, melde Dich bitte an. [orpha.net] Das Hauptproblem der Erkrankung stellt die Einengung der Lunge während der fetalen Entwicklung dar. ! 913-917. (2003) ISBN:1588902129. Verwenden Sie den Chatbot, um Ihre Suche weiter zu verfeinern. [1] Die Ursachen können vielfältig sein. "zum Fetus gehörig". The infant was subsequently delivered, is surviving, and shows only a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram. Bei einer Tachykardie handelt es sich um eine Herzrhythmusstörung. Krapp M, Baschat AA, Gembruch U, et al., Flecanide in the Intrauterine Treatment of Fetal Supraventricular Tachycardia , Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol (2002);19(2): pp. Oudijk MA, Ruskamp JM,Ververs FF, et al., Treatment of Fetal Tachycardia With Sotalol:Transplacental Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics , J Am Coll Cardiol (2003);42(4): pp. , Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol (2004);31(4): pp. It is not affiliated with or is an agent of, the Oxford Heart Centre, the John Radcliffe Hospital or the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust group. Hyman AS. 72-76. Wenn die Tachykardie des Fötus mit einer Herzfrequenz von mehr als 220 Schlaganfällen einhergeht, wird der Frau Sotalol oder Amiodaron verschrieben. Propranolol and amiodarone have been used for treating fetal VT. Intravenous lidocaine (pregnancy category B) has been utilized with some success,4,7 and magnesium (pregnancy category A) has been reported for treatment of fetal torsades.7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Tachyarrhythmias, Content on this site is intended for healthcare professionals only, Tips For Increasing Article Visibility And Impact, US Cardiovascular Disease 2006 - Volume 3 Issue 2. 453-458. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. Where views/opinions are expressed, they are those of the author(s) and not of Radcliffe Medical Media. AJR Am J Roentgenol. Das Gegenteil der Tachykardie  eine zu geringe Herzfrequenz  ist die Bradykardie. Further study may identify further sub-populations responding differently. in utero infection; in utero hypoxia; fetal anemia; chromosomal anomalies. Dis. It has also been tried in hydropic fetuses; however, procainamide is a uterine irritant and may lead to premature labor.4,7 There have been reports of intra-chordal adenosine (pregnancy category C). This was accompanied by an increase in uterine contractions occurring every 1.5 minutes. 477-481. 1068-1080. Persistent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) is a slow form of AVRT.The accessory pathway has very slow retrograde conduction conduction6 with the usual obligatory 1:1 atrioventricular association seen in faster AVRT.7 This uncommon arrhythmia has rates around 180-220bpm.7,8 Since it is generally incessant, hydrops can be associated with this arrhythmia. Sowohl von den Herzkammern, als auch von den Herzvorhöfen kann eine Tachykardie ausgehen. 1985;40 (2): 61-8. Ito S, Magee L, Smallhorn J, Drug Therapy for Fetal Arrhythmias , Semin Perinatol (2001);25(3): pp. Wichtiger Hinweis zu diesem Artikel Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 18. Atrial flutter (AFL), the second most common tachyarrhythmia,11 accounts for 25% of fetal tachyarrhythmias.5 Typical time of presentation is around 32 weeks gestational age but may be noted at delivery.5 The electrophysiologic mechanism of tachycardia is intra-atrial macro-re-entry, similar to adult AFL.6 Overall mortality from AFL is 8%,11 but may be as high as 30% in the hydropic fetus. This rhythm may be intermittent (see Figure 1) or incessant leading to fetal hydrops.5 Overall mortality for sustained fetal SVT is 8.9%,7,11 and higher in hydropic fetuses.5, First-line therapy in a non-hydropic fetus is digoxin;4,8,10,14,17,19,20 however, in hydropic fetuses, it has limited utility.21 Digoxin (pregnancy category C) acts to increase the refractoriness of the AV node8 and its therapeutic effect is due to its negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects.11,14 Fetuses with poor ventricular function may not respond well to digoxin. Published content on this site is for information purposes and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. Experten bezeichnen dies auch als supraventrikuläre oder ventrikuläre Tachykardie. All rights reserved. Fetale Tachyarrhythmien sind selten, können aber aufgrund der konsekutiven Herzinsuffizienz des Feten — je nach Schwere des Krankheitsbildes — zu neurologischen Schäden oder sogar zum Tod des Feten führen. Management der fetalen paroxysmalen supraventrikulären Tachykardie 76 5.7. 3. Karte in den Papierkorb verschieben? Unable to process the form. Tachykardie 1. Flecainide should be the first-line therapy of choice in atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. Tachykardie in der Schwangerschaft ist ein pathologischer Zustand, ... da ohne entsprechende Behandlung zu schwerwiegenden Folgen führen kann. Arch. It was first recognized by A S Hyman in 1930 2. Oudijk MA, Visser GH, Meijboom EJ. It does not contribute to intrauterine growth retardation.18 Side-effects include ventricular arrhythmias, particularly Torsades de Pointes.8 Sotalol has less negative inotropic effects than other β-blockers,23 and crosses the placenta easily reflecting fetal blood levels on a 1:1 ratio with maternal levels.2,14, Ectopic atrial tachycardia (EAT) is a rare automatic tachycardia caused by an ectopic atrial focus generating impulses faster than the SA node.4,6,8,12 Typical rates range from 210-250bpm.6,12 It has a characteristic 'warm-up' phenomenon with an accelerated rate.7 EAT is more difficult to control than AVRT; combination medical therapy is often utilized. Je nach CTG-Befund kommt es dann auch darauf an, ob es eben nur kurzfristig war oder nicht. 196-201. Fachgebiete: Terminologie. Oudijk MA, Stoutenbeek P, Sreeram N, et al., Persistent Junctional Reciprocating Tachycardia in the Fetus , J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med (2003);13(3): pp. trisomy 13; Turner syndrome; Radiographic features Ultrasound Fetal echocardiography The diagnosis of hydrops is made by echocardiographic findings of ascites, pericardial effusion, pleural effusions, and subcutaneous edema. Je nachdem, wo die Tachykardie entsteht, sprechen Mediziner hier von einer Vorhof- oder Kammer-Tachykardie. 6. Tanel RE, Rhodes LA, Fetal and Neonatal Arrhythmias , Clin Perinatol (2001);28(1): pp. In sinus tachycardia, there is a 1:1 conduction from the atria through to the ventricles. Fouron, JC, Fetal Arrhythmias:The Saint-Justine Hospital Experience , Prenat Diagn (2004);24(13): pp. 483-487. The goal of fetal anti-arrhythic therapy is term delivery of a non-hydropic baby. Congenital Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia (JET), a rare tachyarrhythmia in fetuses, is a slower yet incessant tachycardia with rates of 180-200bpm.20 This arrhythmia can be 1:1 or have a faster ventricular rate than atrial rate and may have a familial occurrence.24, Fetal VT is also quite rare,11 with ventricular rates from 170-400bpm. So kann ein zu schneller Herzschlag, der im Herzvorhof seinen Ursprung hat, wesentlich besser kompensiert werden, als wenn es sich um eine "Kammer-Tachykardie" handelt. Long-term prognosis, of fetal tachycardia despite severity of illness at time of presentation, is good, especially if conversion or rate control can be attained in utero21 and hydrops is avoided. Rebelo M, Macedo A, Nogueira G, et al., Sotalol in the Treatment of Fetal Tachyarrhythmia ,Rev Port Cardiol (2006);25(5): pp. 5. Bei Amnioninfektion (Chorioamnionitis) kann die … 891-912, viii. A fetal tachycardia can range from simple sinus tachycardia to various fetal tachyarrhythmias. Oudijk MA, Michon MM, Kleinman CS, et al., Sotalol in the Treatment of Fetal Dysrhythmias , Circulation (2000);13;101(23): pp. Wird das Gehirn eines ungeborenen Kindes durch den Alkoholkonsum der Mutter geschädigt, muss es zeitlebens unter den Folgen leiden. In der Folge wird das Blut nicht vollständig in den Körperkreislauf gepumpt. 191-196. fetal premature ventricular contraction(s), monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy, absent umbilical arterial end diastolic flow, reversal of umbilical arterial end diastolic flow, fetal middle cerebral arterial Doppler assessment, maternal tachycardia (e.g. Sekundäre Veränderungen können ein Hydrops fetalis, Polyhydramnion und ein verdickte Plazenta sein. The Fetal Medicine Foundation is aware of the General Data Protection Regulation and changes to data protection legislation. Fetale Herzfrequenz . Die v… Ultrasound Diagnosis of Fetal Anomalies. Die fetale Herzfrequenz wird im CTG auch als Baseline oder Basalfrequenz bezeichnet und liegt normalerweise bei 110–160 bpm. Fetal tachycardia is an abnormal increase in the fetal heart rate. Die damit einhergehenden Beeinträchtigungen unterschiedlicher Funktionen des Gehirns können sich überall im Alltag bemerkbar machen. eks of gestation was treated for pruritus with intravenous diphenhydramine after epidural administration of fentanyl. Du kannst die Karte später wieder herstellen, indem Du den Filter "Papierkorb" in der Liste von Karten auswählst, sofern Du den Papierkorb nicht schon zwischenzeitlich geleert hast. Entezami M, Albig M, Knoll U et-al. Premature delivery of the hydropic fetus is almost universally fatal and should be avoided. Frage von Muttercolonia, 37. 7. Symptome sind Atemnot, Dyspnoe, Tachykardie, Zyanose und Gedeihstörungen.